Country Name: conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Iran
conventional short form: Iran
local long form: Jomhuri-ye Eslami-ye Iran
local short form: Iran
Government type: theocratic republic
Independence: 1 April 1979 (Islamic Republic of Iran proclaimed); notable earlier dates: ca. 625 B.C. (unification of Iran under the Medes); ca. A.D. 1501 (Iran reunified under the Safavids); 12 December 1925 (modern Iran established under the Pahlavis)
Republic Day: 1 April (1979)
The political system of the Islamic Republic is based on the 1979 Constitution. Accordingly, it is the duty of the Islamic government to furnish all citizens with equal and appropriate opportunities, to provide them with work, and to satisfy their essential needs, so that the course of their progress may be assured. The system comprises several intricately connected governing bodies. The Supreme Leader of Iran is responsible for delineation and supervision of the general policies of the Islamic Republic of The Supreme Leader is Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces controls the military intelligence and security operations; and has sole power to declare war or peace.
The heads of the judiciary, state radio and television networks, the commanders of the police and military forces and six of the twelve members of the Council of Guardians are appointed by the Supreme Leader. The Assembly of Experts elects and dismisses the Supreme Leader on the basis of qualifications and popular esteem. The Assembly of Experts is responsible for supervising the Supreme Leader in the performance of legal duties.
After the Supreme Leader, the Constitution defines the President of Iran as the highest state authority. The President is elected by universal suffrage for a term of four years and can only be re-elected for one term. Presidential candidates must be approved by the Council of Guardians prior to running in order to ensure their allegiance to the ideals of the Islamic revolution.
2) Executive Branch
chief of state: Supreme Leader Ali Hoseini-KHAMENEI (since 4 June 1989)
head of government: President Mahmud AHMADI-NEJAD (since 3 August 2005); First Vice President Mohammad Reza RAHIMI (since 13 September 2009)
cabinet: Council of Ministers selected by the president with legislative approval; the Supreme Leader has some control over appointments to the more sensitive ministries
(For more information visit the World Leaders website )
also considered part of the Executive branch of government are three oversight bodies: 1) Assembly of Experts (Majles-e Khoebregan), a popularly elected body charged with determining the succession of the Supreme Leader, reviewing his performance, and deposing him if deemed necessary; 2) Expediency Council or the Council for the Discernment of Expediency (Majma-ye- Tashkhis-e -Maslahat-e- Nezam) exerts supervisory authority over the executive, judicial, and legislative branches and resolves legislative issues when the Majles and the Council of Guardians disagree and since 1989 has been used to advise national religious leaders on matters of national policy; in 2005 the Council's powers were expanded to act as a supervisory body for the government; 3) Council of Guardians of the Constitution or Council of Guardians or Guardians Council (Shora-ye Negban-e Qanon-e Asasi) determines whether proposed legislation is both constitutional and faithful to Islamic law, vets candidates in popular elections for suitability, and supervises national elections
supreme leader appointed for life by the Assembly of Experts; president elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term and additional nonconsecutive term); election last held on 12 June 2009 (next presidential election slated for June 2013)
Mahmud AHMADI-NEJAD reelected president; percent of vote - Mahmud AHMADI-NEJAD 62.6%, Mir-Hosein MUSAVI-Khamenei 33.8%, other 3.6%; voter turnout 85% (according to official figures published by the government)
3) Legislative branch
unicameral Islamic Consultative Assembly or Majles-e Shura-ye Eslami or Majles (290 seats; members elected by popular vote from single and multimember districts to serve four-year terms)
last held on 2 March 2012 (first round); second round held on 4 May 2012; (next election to be held in 2016)
percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA
religious legal system based on sharia law
International law organization participation, has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
4) Judicial branch
The Supreme Court (Qeveh Qazaieh) and the four-member High Council of the Judiciary have a single head and overlapping responsibilities; together they supervise the enforcement of all laws and establish judicial and legal policies; lower courts include a special clerical court, a revolutionary court, and a special administrative court
Imam Khomeini (Biography)
Imam Khomeini was born in the town of Khomein, about 350 kms south of Tehran in the central province, on the 20th of Jamadi-Al-Thani, the year 1320 L.H.,(September 24, 1902). Also the birth anniversary of Fatima Zahra, the daughter of Prophet Mohammea (peace be upon him). He was named Ruhollah. The sprit of God.
His father, Ayatollah Seyyed Mostafa Musavi, assumed the religious leadership of the people of Khomein and the nearby villages after his return from the Islamic theology center in the city of Najaf, Iraq. But only a few months after Ruhollah was born, his father was fatally wounded by bandits on the road to Arak, north of Khomein. He was 47.
Imam Khomeini`s mother, Hajar, was also
of a prominent religious family. She was the daughter of an Ayatollah Mirza
Ahmad, a scholar and teacher in Karbala and Najaf theological centers, in Iraq.
She also passed away when the Imam was only 15.
Despite these personal disasters, the
Imam remained resistant and began using his talent and intelligence in learning
Islamic sciences --first under his brother, Ayatollah Seyyed Morteza Pasandideh.
Later he went to the theological school in Arak where he attended the classes of
the prominent scholar of his time, Haj Sheikh Abdulkarim Haeri Yazdi. He also
mastered Arabic literature.
After top theologians moved from Arak to the holy city of Qom, the Imam intensified his studies and completed the highest level of theology by 1927, and soon later was pronounced a mujtahid, qualified jurist, by his senior tutors. He specialized in various fields other than Fiqh (jurisprudence), including Philosophy, Irfan and Ethics.
3. Political Life before 1963
Known for his strong political views
against the regime, the security agents of Reza Khan, the founder of the Pahlavi
dynasty, were ordered to restrict the Imam"s activities. But the Imam continued
his gradual but firm effort to spread his enlightening message to masses.
After the death of Ayatollah Borujerdi, the paramount shia leader of the time, the Imam was chosen his successor by the Ulema and people. With this, his cultural Jihad against the monarchy gathered momentum in 1961, reaching a climax in 1963.
On June 3rd of that year the Imam made a
historical speech against the dependence of the Shah"s regime on foreign powers
and its support of the Israel. He also stressed on the role of the Ulema in
The Imam was immediately arrested on June 5th. But his powerful speech brought the people of Qom out into the streets. News reached other cities and for two days people in several major cities including Tehran, demonstrated against the Shah and in support of the Imam.
On June 5th, troops supported by tank were deployed crush the growing movement. Many are massacre and the Shah"s dictatorial regime appeared to have achieved victory. But the seed of the Islamic Revolution had been planted.
5. In Exile 4/11/1964-3/10/1978
Following the Imam"s arrest, the regime
came under sever pressure from the Ulema and the massage. On November 4th, the
Imam was sent into exile. He was first deported to Turkey and then to Iraq where
he took up residence in Najaf.
Still determined to act according to his religious responsibility the Imam escalated his political struggle. This further added to the religious and political awareness and maturity of the Iranian people that was demonstrated by their angry and massive response to the murder of Haj Mostafa Khomeini, the Imam"s eldest son, in the winter o f1977 by the agents of the Shah"s secret police, the Savak.
The martyrdom of Haj Mostafa, as well as an insulting article printed in the daily Ettela`at on Savak`s order, prompted mourning a protest gathering in major cities. Many people were killed in demonstrations and the regime decided that the only way to calm the situation was to prevent the Imam"s inspirational message reach the people.
The Shah demanded and received cooperation from the Iraqi regime and the Imam was expelled on 3 October 1978.
6. Migration (Oct. 3, 1978-Feb. 1, 1979)
Imam Khomeini set out for Kuwait on
October 3rd 1978 but was denied entry by the government. After consulting with
his son, Ahamad, the Imam decided to go to France where he arrived on October
5th and a few days later took up residence in the small village of Neuphle le
In Iran mass protests against the regime and the continued exile of the Imam grew to such an extent that it become impossible to control and suppress completely.
The Imam made frequent speeches, sent messages to the Iranian nation, gave numerous interviews to the media, outlining the liberation- seeking values and ideas of Islam and explained the framework of the Islamic state based on divine justice.
The ruling regime was facing a serious crisis. The West forced the Shah to leave Iran to allow the newly formed "liberal" Bakhtiar government to gain legitimacy in the eyes of the people. But the Imam still held the initiative: he was determined to return to Iran. The nation prepared for the greatest home coming ceremony in history. The Imam left Paris for Tehran on 1 February 1979.
7. Return to Home 1/2/1979
The streets o Tehran was packed with
millions of people, waiting enthusiastically to great the Imam.
The Plane carrying the Imam landed safely at Tehran"s Merababd Airport. The Imam set foot on the Islamic homeland for the first time in more than 15 years. His first move upon arrival was to go to Behesht-e Zahra Cemetery to pay tribute to the martyrs of the Islamic Revolution.
Confident of victory, people rejected everywhere. The regime unleashed its last bullets. Love, courage, and martyrdom in the struggle led every step of the monarchical regime. The Islamic Revolution triumphed and true Mohammadan Islam spread its wings over Iran.
Everyday thousands of people rushed to see the Imam. An interim government was formed. The new state was gradually taking shape. The Imam insisted that the main institutions be set up. The people voted for the Islamic Republic and approved its constitution. Thus the first Islamic State after 1400 years was born.
8. The Islamic Republic of IRAN
After setting up the Islamic Republic of IRAN, Imam was no longer just a leader, but a caring, sincere, father. He even cared for those who have done wrong and lost their way. He was loved, even by the poor, the deprived and freedom fighters of other nations.
The Imam made most of his speeches during he period among 19979 - 1989. He gave out solutions, set the framework for principles of statementship. He not only explain the virtues of religion and ethics, but detailed the aims of the Islamic Republic and its domestic and foreign policies.
9. Farewell, and Mourning
After ten years, at 22:22 Saturday night June 3rd, 1989, the Imam passed away. The news was broadcast the following morning, the sense of loss was unbearable. Millions poured in from all part of country to participate in the biggest farewell in the history. The similar ceremonies were held, as well as in many Islamic countries and communities around the world.
HIS EMINENCE AYATOLLAH KHAMENEI (BIOGRAPHY)
On the 16th of July 1939, the future
Leader of Islamic Iran was born in the holy city of Mashhad, in the province of
Khorasan. Sayyed Ali was the second son of Sayyed Javad Khamenei, a humble and
poor Islamic scholar who taught all members of his family how to lead a simple,
humble way of life.
"My father, though a well-known religious figure, was a bit of an ascetic. We had a hard life. Sometimes for supper we had nothing but bread with some raisins, which our mother had somehow improvised.... our house, some sixty-five square meters, consisted of a single room and a gloomy basement. When visitors came to see my father as the local cleric to consult about their problems, the family had to move into the basement while the visit went on.... Years later some charitable persons bought the small, empty lot adjacent to our house, so we were able to build two more rooms."
At the age of four Sayyed Ali and his older brother Mohammad, were sent to maktab, the traditional primary-schools of that time, in order to learn the alphabet and the Holy Quran. Later, he was transferred to a newly established Islamic school to continue his learning.
After this primary schooling, Sayyed Ali pursued his studies at the theological seminary in Mashhad. "The main encouraging factors for this enlightened decision were my parents, especially my father" says Ayatollah Khamenei today.
At Soleiman Khan and Nawwab religious schools and under the supervision of his father and the tutorships of some great religious scholars, he studied all the 'intermediate level ' curriculum including logic, philosophy and Islamic jurisprudence in the exceptionally short time of five years. He then started his advanced level studies called darse kharij with such eminent scholars and instructors as Grand Ayatollah Milani.
SEMINARIES OF NAJAF AND QUM
The young Sayyed Ali was only eighteen years old when he started his studies at the highest level. He decided to make a pilgrimage to the holy shrines in Iraq, and so he left Iran for Najaf in 1957. He was fascinated by the theological and academic instructions of such eminent scholars such as Ayatollah Hakim and Ayatollah Shahrudi. He attended their lessons and was willing to stay there and continue his studies in order to profit from these excellent teachers. However his father made it known that he preferred his son continue his advanced studies in the holy city of Qum. Thus, respecting his father's wish, he returned to Iran in 1958.
Diligently and enthusiastically he followed his advanced studies in Qum from 1958 to 1964 and benefited from the teachings of great scholars and grand ayatollahs such as Ayat. Borujerdi, Imam Khomeini, Ayat. Haeri Yazdi and Allamah Tabatabai.
He received the bad news that his father had lost his sight in one eye and was not able to read properly. This prompted him to return to Mashhad and while being at the service of his father, seek further knowledge from him, from Ayatollah Milani and other important scholars residing in Mashhad. The young Sayyed Ali, who had now become a mujtahid by having completed his advanced level studies, began to teach various religious subjects to younger seminary and university students.
Recalling this important point of departure in his life, the Leader says, "If there have been any successes in my life, they all go back to God's blessings favored upon me because of my dutiful caring for parents."
"In the areas of political and revolutionary ideas and Islamic jurisprudence, I am certainly a disciple of Imam Khomeini" says Ayatollah Khamenei. He adds: "Yet the very first sparks of consciousness concerning Islamic, revolutionary ideas and the duty to fight the Shah's despotism and his British supporters, was kindled in my soul at the age of 13 when the brave cleric, Nawwab Safavi, later martyred by the Shah's regime, came to our school in Mashhad in 1952 and delivered a fiery speech against the Shah's anti-Islamic and devious policies."
It was in Qum in 1962, that Sayyed Ali joined the ranks of the revolutionary followers of Imam Khomeini who opposed the pro-American, anti-Islamic policies of the Shah's regime.
Dedicated and fearless, he followed this path for the next 16 years which ultimately led to the downfall of the Shah's brutal regime: persecution, torture, imprisonment and exile could not make him waver for a moment.
In May of 1963 (corresponding to the holy month of Muharram), Imam Khomeini honored the young, brave cleric Sayyed Ali, with the mission of taking a secret message to Ayatollah Milani and other clergymen in Mashhad, on the ways and tactics of exposing the true nature of the Shah's regime. He fulfilled this mission properly and traveled to the city of Birjand for further propagation of Imam Khomeini's views. Here he was arrested for the first time and spent one night in jail. The following the authorities ordered him not to speak at the pulpit again. From that moment he knew that he would be under police surveillance all the time. Of course he did not submit to police threats, and as a result of his activities relating to the bloody June 1963 Uprising (15th of Khordad ), he was again arrested and transferred to Mashhad to spend ten days in prison under severe conditions.
In January 1964 (Ramadhan 1383), according to a well-organized plan, Ayatollah Khamenei and a few close friends traveled to Kirman and Zahedan in southern Iran, to expose the phony referendum the Shah was holding for his so-called reforms. There in the course of many public speeches, he exposed the satanic American policies of the Pahlavi regime. This time, the Shah's feared intelligence agency, SAVAK, stepped in and arrested him one late evening. He was taken to Tehran by an airplane to spend two months in solitary confinement during which time he was tortured.
Once freed, he started holding lessons on the exegeses of the Holy Quran, the Prophetic Traditions and Islamic ideology in Mashhad and Tehran. These lessons were most appreciated by the revolutionary Iranian youth. As he was sure now that SAVAK was watching him closely, he was forced to go underground in 1967. However, he was arrested again for holding such classes and Islamic discussions.
Ayatollah Khamenei has himself explained the reasons for such measures by SAVAK:
"From 1970 onwards, grounds for an armed movement were being laid out. Accordingly the regime's sensitivity and severity of action against me increased. They could not believe that the armed actions were not connected with a sound, Islamic ideology. They thought that there must be links between these revolutionaries and people like me because of my intellectual and diligent activities. Despite all this, after I was released, more and more people attended my classes on the Holy Quran and many were present at our clandestine gatherings.
LAST ARREST AND EXILE
Throughout the years 1972-1975, Ayatollah Khamenei was holding classes on the Holy Quran and Islamic ideology in three different mosques in Mashhad. These classes together with his lectures on Imam Ali's (as) Nahjul Balagha attracted thousands of conscious, politically-minded youth and students. The lectures were circulated among the people in hand-written or typed forms, in most towns and cities.
His students traveled to distant cities to spread his lessons and ideas. All this frightened the Shah's SAVAK agents and so, in the winter of 1975, they broke into his home in Mashhad and arrested him for the 6th time and confiscated all his books and notes.
Now he was detained in Tehran's notorious "Police-SAVAK Joint Prison" for many months. This had been his most trying imprisonment, and Ayatollah Khamenei has this to say about the barbarous treatment of the detainees: "These conditions may be understood only by those who suffered them..."
In the autumn of 1975, he was freed and sent back to Mashhad and he was now completely banned from delivering lectures or holding classes.
His clandestine activities, however, prompted SAVAK to apprehend him in the winter of 1976 and sentence him to exile for three years. This difficult period came to an end in the latter part of 1978 due to the prevailing political conditions, and Ayatollah Khamenei returned to Mashhad a few months before the triumph of the Islamic revolution. He diligently continued his political-religious activities in this momentous period of civil unrest and mass demonstrations throughout Iran.
Thus, after nearly 15 years of bearing all sorts of torture and maltreatment at the hands of the agents of the Shah's bloodthirsty regime, he could now witness the fall of the tyrannical Pahlavi regime and the rise of an Islamic Republic in Iran.
THE VICTORY OF THE
Shortly before the triumph of the Islamic Revolution (February 11, 1979) and before Imam Khomeini's victorious return to Iran from Paris, an Islamic Revolutionary Council was formed at the behest of the Imam. Ayatollah Khamenei was appointed as a member of this Council together with other important Islamic notables such Shahid Ayatollahs Motahhari and Beheshti. He, therefore, left Mashhad for Tehran to take up his new responsibilities.
The following is a list of the services he has rendered to the Islamic Republic since that time:
1980- Founding member of the Islamic Republic Party, together with such religious scholars and Mujahids as Shahid Beheshti, Rafsanjani, Shahid Bahonar, and Musavi-Ardebili.
• Deputy-Minister of Defence
• Supervisor of the Islamic Revolutionary Guards
• Imam of Tehran's Friday Congregational Prayers, per Imam Khomeini's decree.
• Elected Tehran MP in the Majlis (Consultative Assembly)
1981- Imam Khomeini's Representative at the High Council of Defence
• Active presence at the fronts of the Iraqi-imposed war.
1982- Elected President of the Islamic Republic of Iran following the martyrdom of President Mohammad Ali Rajai (Ayatollah Khamenei was himself the target of an assassination attempt at Abu Dhar mosque in Tehran after which he was hospitalized for a few months).
• Appointed Chairman of the Revolution's Cultural Council.
1986- President of the Expediency Council
• Re-elected President of the Islamic Republic for a second 4-year term
1989- Elected as the Supreme Leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran by the Assembly of Experts after the demise of Imam Khomeini.
1990- Chairman of the Committee for Revision of the Constitution.
WORKS AUTHORED AND
1. Islamic Thought in the Quran (An Outline)
2. The Profundity of Prayer
3. A Discourse on Patience
4. On the Four Principal Books of Traditions Concerning the Biography of Narrators.
5. Guardianship (Wilayah)
6. A General Report of the Islamic Seminary of Mashhad
7. Imam Al-Saadiq (AS)
8. Unity and Political Parties
9. Personal Views on the Arts
10. Understanding Religion Properly
11. Struggles of Shia Imams (as)
12. The Essence of God's Unity
13. The Necessity of Returning to the Quran
14. Imam Al-Sajjad (as)
15. Imam Reza (as) and His Appointment as Crown Prince.
16. The Cultural Invasion (Collection of Speeches)
17. Collections of Speeches and Messages ( 9 Volumes )
Translations (from Arabic into Farsi)
1. Peace Treaty of Imam Hassan (AS) , by Raazi Aal-Yasseen
2. The Future in Islamic Lands, by Sayyed Qutb
3. Muslims in the Liberation Movement of India, by Abdulmunaim Nassri
4. An Indictment against the Western Civilization, by Sayyed Gutb
2-3 December 1979; revised 1989
note: the revision in 1989 expanded powers of the presidency and eliminated the prime ministership
The Introduction to the Constitution of Islamic Republic of Iran
In the name of God, the compassionate, the merciful.
We have sent Our apostles with veritable signs and brought down with them scriptures and the scales of justice, so that men might conduct themselves with fairness".
[quotations from the KORAN; English translation by N.J. Dawood]
The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran sets forth the cultural, social, political and economic institutions of the people of Iran, based on Islamic principles and rules, and reflecting the fundamental desires of the Islamic people. The essence of the great Islamic Revolution of Iran, and the course of the struggle of the Muslim people from its beginning to its victory, as manifested by the categorical and striking slogans used by all classes of the people, get their special character from this fundamental desire. Now our nation, with the whole of its being is in the vanguard of this great victory, and strives for the attainment of that desire.
The unique characteristic of this Revolution, as compared with other Iranian movements of the last century, is that it is religious and Islamic. The Muslim people of Iran, after living through an anti-despotic movement for constitutional government, and anti-colonialist movement for the nationalization of petroleum, gained precious experience in that they realized that the basic and specific reason for the failure of those movements was that that they were not religious ones. Although in those movements Islamic thinking and the guidance of a militant clergy played a basic and prominent part, yet they swiftly trailed off into stagnation, because the struggle deviated from the true Islam. But now the nation's conscience has awakened to the leadership of an exalted Authority, His Eminence Ayatollah Imam Khomeini, and has grasped the necessity of following the line of the true religious and Islamic movement. This time the country's militant clergy, which has always been in the front lines of the people's movement, together with writers and committed intellectuals, has gained new strength (lit: impetus) under his leadership (The most recent movement of the Iranian nation began in the HEGIRA lunar year 1382, equivalent to the HEGIRA solar year 1341) - (Translator's note: the solar year 1341 equals 1963 A.D.)
THE VANGUARD OF THE MOVEMENT
Imam Khomeini's crushing protest against that American plot, The White Revolution, which was a step taken with a view to strengthening the foundations of the despotic regime and consolidating Iran's political, cultural and economic links with World Imperialism, was the motive force behind the united uprising of the nation. There followed the great and bloody revolution of the Islamic people in the month of KHORDAD 1342 (Translator's note: equivalent to June 1963) -This was indeed the starting-point of the flowering of that magnificent and widespread revolt which consolidated and confirmed the Imam's central position as the Islamic leader. Despite his banishment from Iran following on his protest against the shameful Law of Capitulation (immunity for American advisers), the firm bond (of the people) with the Imam was strengthened. The Muslim nation, in particular committed intellectuals and the militant clergy, continued along its path, amid banishment and imprisonment, torture and execution.
Meanwhile the informed and responsible section of the community was busy with clarification of the issues, within the strongholds of mosques, places of learning, and universities. Inspired by the revolutionary religious feeling and the rich fruitfulness of Islam, they began a persistent and rewarding struggle to raise the level of awareness and vigilance as regards the fight, and its religious nature, among the Muslim nation. The despotic regime began the suppression of the Islamic movement with a malignant attack on the FEIZIYE (Translator's note: meaning uncertain) and the University and all the clamorous (protesting) Clubs (that were part) of the Revolution. It took bloodthirsty but futile steps to quell the revolutionary fury of the people. While this was going on firing squads, medieval torture, and long imprisonment were the price our Muslim nation paid to demonstrate its firm resolve to continue the struggle. The blood of hundreds of young men and women flowed for the Faith in the shooting yards at dawn as they raised the cry of "God is Great" (ALLAHU AKBAR). Or they were the target for hostile bullets in lanes and bazaars in forwarding the Islamic revolution of Iran, distributing the ever-continuing proclamations and messages of the Imam on a variety of occasions, and (asserting) the awareness and determination of the Islamic nation ever more widely and deeply.
Islamic Government is designed on a basis of "religious guardianship" (VELAYAT FAQIYE) as put forward by Imam Khomeini at the height of the intense emotion and strangulation (felt) under the despotic regime. This created a specific motivation and new field of advance for the Muslim people; and opened up the true path for the religious fight of Islam, pressing forward the struggle of the committed Muslim combatants, inside and outside the country.
The movement continued along this basic line until eventually the dissatisfaction and fury of the people, arising out of the daily increasing pressure and strangulation inside the country, and the extension and repetition of the struggle by the clergy, and by militant students at world level, severely shook the rule of the regime. The regime and its masters were forced to reduce its pressure and strangulation, and - so to speak - to open up the political arena of the country which it thought would be the safety valve to secure it against its certain collapse. But the nation was aroused, aware (of the situation) , and firmly devoted to the decisive and unshakable leadership of the Imam. It began its victorious and united uprising in ever more wide-spread and comprehensive fashion.
THE PEOPLES' ANGER
The publication by the regime on the 17th of the month of DEY, 1356 (equals 7 January 1978) (Translator's note: not 1977 as in original translation) of the letter which insulted the sacred order of the clergy, and in particular the Imam Khomeini, hastened this movement. It caused the people's anger to explode all over the country. In an effort to control this volcano of popular anger, the regime tried to suppress the protest uprising by bloodshed. This very fact set more blood pulsing through the veins of the Revolution. Continuing revolutionary passion at the time of the seven-day and forty-day commemoration of the martyrs of the Revolution, added on an ever-increasing scale to the vitality and ardor and fervent unity of the movement throughout the country. It continued and extended the people's upheaval in all the country's organizations by a general strike and joining in street demonstrations while actively seeking the downfall of the despotic regime. Widespread co-operation of men and women of all classes, and of religious and political groups, in this struggle, took place in decisive and dramatic fashion In particular women joined openly on all the scenes of this great Holy War, ever more actively and extensively. Such a scene would be a mother with a child in her bosom hastening to the battlefield and facing machine gun fire This large section of society took a main and decisive part in the struggle.
THE PRICE THE NATION PAID
After a little over a year the budding Revolution and its continuing struggle settled to its result. It's cost (lit: fruit) was the blood of more than 60,000 martyrs, 100,000 wounded and with damaged health, and milliards of tomans of financial loss; all amid cries of "Independence", "Freedom", and "Islamic Rule". This mighty movement with its reliance upon faith, unity, and decisiveness in leadership, came to a victorious conclusion in an atmosphere of emotion and tension and of the nation's devotion. It was successful in crushing all the calculations and maneuverings of Imperialism. A new chapter opened up in its own way for popular revolutions in the world.
The 21st and 22nd of the month of BAHMAN 1357 (Translator's note: equivalent to 10th and 11th February 1979) were the days on which the Shah's establishment collapsed Domestic despotism and the foreign domination which depended on it were defeated. This great victory brought the glad tidings of final triumph and was the prelude to Islamic Government which was the long-felt desire of the Muslim people.
Unanimously, the nation of Iran, in partnership with the religious authorities, and the ULEMA of Islam, and the repository of Leadership, in a referendum concerning the Islamic Republic, took a final and categorical decision to set up an exalted new republican and Islamic order, and affirmed the Islamic Republic by a majority vote of 98.2%.
Now the Constitution of the Islamic Republic, as the announcement of the structure and political, social, cultural and economic relationships within society, must guide the way towards the consolidation of the foundations of Islamic Government, and produce the design for a new order of Government in substitution for the old idolatrous order.
STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT IN ISLAM
From the viewpoint of Islam, government does not spring from the sphere of classes or domination by individuals or groups. It crystallizes the political aspirations of a nation united in faith and thinking which provides itself with an organization so that in the process of transformation of ideas and beliefs, its way may be opened towards the ultimate goal (moving towards God). In the course of its revolutionary development our nation was cleansed from the dust and rust of idolatry, and from foreign ideological influence. It returned to true Islamic intellectual attitudes and views of the world. Now it is planning to build its new model society on such a basis, with Islamic standards. The Mission of the Constitution is to identify itself with the basic beliefs of the movement and to bring about the conditions under which the lofty and worldwide values' of Islam will flourish.
The Constitution, having regard to the Islamic contents of the Iranian Revolution, which was a movement for the victory of all the oppressed over the arrogant, provides a basis for the continuation of that revolution both inside and outside the country. It particularly tries to do this in developing international relations with other Islamic movements and peoples, so as to prepare the way towards a united single world community ("Your community is one community, and I am your Lord who you are to worship") Quotation from the Arabic and to the continuation of the progressive struggle for the rescue of deprived and oppressed nations throughout the world.
Having regard to the intrinsic nature of this great movement, the Constitution guarantees to oppose any kind of despotism, intellectual, social, and as regards monopoly economics, and to struggle for freedom from the despotic system, and to entrust men's destiny to their own hands.
("He releases them from their heavy burdens and yokes which are on them") Quotation from the Arabic.
In creating the political structures and foundations for organizing society on the basis of acceptance of religion, devout men have the responsibility for government and administration of the country.
("The earth will be inherited by my pious followers"). Quotation from the Arabic.
Legislation which is to set out the codes for the management of society will have as its central axis the Koran and tradition. Therefore there is great necessity for exact and serious supervision by just and virtuous and dedicated Islamic scholars (FEQHA-ye-ADEL = just men of religious law). Because the aim of government is to help mankind to develop towards the divine order and until the ground is cleared and the human talents have blossomed forth for the glorification of God's nature in all its dimensions, ("To emulate God's morality11) Quotation from the Arabic, there cannot, except by delegation, be active and extensive participation at all stages in the taking of political decisions and the determination of destiny for all persons in society, so that every individual has a hand in the task of human development and is responsible for growth and progress and guidance. This will be the assurance of government for the oppressed of the earth.
THE GUARDIANSHIP OF THE JUST MAN OF RELIGIOUS LAW (FAQIYEH-e-ADEL)
On the basis of continuous Guardianship and Leadership (Imamate) the Constitution provides for leadership under all conditions, (by a person) recognized by the people as lender, so that there shall be security against deviation by various organizations ("The course of affairs is in the hands of those who know God and who are trustworthy in matters having to do with what he permits and forbids") - Quotation from the Arabic.
THE ECONOMY AS A MEANS NOT AN END
In strengthening the foundations of the economy, the governing principle is the satisfaction of mankind's needs in the course of its growth and development. It is not (the pursuit) of other economic objectives (systems) , such as centralization and the accumulation of wealth and the search for profit. In materialistic schools of thought, economic activity (the economy) is its own end This at (different) stages of growth, economic activity is a factor working for destruction and corruption and decay. But in Islam economic activity is a means. As an ultimate (lit: waiting) means there can be no more effective (instrument) on the path towards the goal.
From this point of view, the Islamic program of economic activity to provide a suitable field for the emergence of human creative power in various forms, and in this way provide equal and well-balanced opportunities, and make work, for all people, and satisfy the essential requirements of the advance towards development is the responsibility of the Islamic Government.
WOMEN IN THE CONSTITUTION
In the creation of Islamic foundations, all the human forces which had been in the service of general foreign exploitation will recover their true identity and human rights. In doing so, women who have endured more tyranny up till now under the idolatrous order, will naturally vindicate their rights further.
The family unit is the basis of society, and the true focus for the growth and elevation of mankind. Harmony of beliefs and aspirations in setting up the family is the true foundation of the movement towards the development and growth of mankind. This has been a fundamental principle. Providing the opportunities for these objectives to be reached is one of the duties of the Islamic Government.
Women were drawn away from the family unit and (put into) the condition of "being a mere thing", or "being a mere tool for work" in the service of consumerism and exploitation. Re-assumption of the task of bringing up religiously-minded men and women, ready to work and fight together in life's fields of activity, is a serious and precious duty of motherhood. And so acceptance of this responsibility as more serious and - from the Islamic point of view -a loftier ground for appreciation (lit: value) status (lit: greatness) will be forthcoming.
THE RELIGIOUS ARMY
In the organization and equipping of the countries defense forces, there must be regard for faith and religion as their basis and rules. And so the Islamic Republic's army, and the corps of Revolutionary Guards must be organized in accordance with this aim. They have responsibility not only for the safeguarding of the frontiers, but also for a religious mission, which is Holy War (JIHAD) along the way of God, and the struggle to extend the supremacy of God's Law in the world.
("Against them make ready your strength to the utmost of your power, including steeds of war, to strike terror into the hearts of the enemies of God and your enemies, and others beside") Quotation from the Arabic.
THE JUDICIARY OF THE CONSTITUTION
The question of the judiciary in relation to the safeguarding of the people's rights along the line (adopted by) the Islamic movement with the object of preventing localized deviation within the Islamic community, is a vital one. Thus provision must be made for the establishment of a judicial system on the basis of Islamic justice, manned by just judges, well acquainted with the exact rules of the Islamic code. Such a pattern of organization is necessary because of the delicate and subtle structure of Religion, which must be kept free from any kind of unhealthy relationship.
("And when you judge between man and man, judge with justice") Quotation from the Arabic.
THE EXECUTIVE POWER
The executive power must open up the path towards the creation of an Islamic society. This is because of its special importance as regards the putting into effect of Islamic ordinances and regulations, so that just relationships can be attained in the governing of society; and also because of the essential character of this vital question in laying the foundations for the ultimate goal of life. Thus (the executive power) is to be hedged about by every kind of intricate disciplinary arrangement which may further the attainment of this goal, or negate any source of anxiety from the Islamic viewpoint. The bureaucracy which was the offspring of idolatrous rule is to be eliminated with severity, so that an executive system of greater efficiency and increasing speed (of action) can come into existence to deal with administrative undertakings.
THE PUBLIC MEDIA
The public media (radio-television) must take their place in the process of development of the Islamic revolution, and must serve in the propagation of Islamic culture. In this sphere they must look for opportunities for a healthy exchange of differing ideas, and must rigorously refrain from the propagation and encouragement of destructive and anti-Islamic qualities (ideas).
In pursuance of the principles of this law which recognize freedom and human dignity as the central point (lit: frontispiece) of their objectives, and opens up the path of development and perfection of man as the responsibility of all, the Islamic community must elect sagacious and devout representatives, and exercise active supervision over their work, to participate in the building up of the Islamic society. This in the hope that in building the exemplary Islamic society they will succeed in setting a pattern of self-sacrifice to all the people of the world.
("Thus we appointed you a central nation that you might be witnesses to the people") Quotation from the Arabic.
The Council of Experts (MAJLIS-e-KHEBREGAN), composed of representatives of the people, drew up the Constitution on the basis of scrutiny of the draft proposed by the Government, and of the proposals put forward by various groups. It contains 12 chapters and 175 articles. It was completed on the eve of the 15th century since the HEGIRA of the great Prophet (God bless and preserve him) and the establishment of the redeeming faith of Islam with the aims and motives described above, and in the hope that this century will be the century of the rule of the world by the oppressed, and the complete overthrow of the arrogant ones.
Chapter I General Principles
Article 1 [Form of Government]
The form of government of Iran is that of an Islamic Republic, endorsed by the people of Iran on the basis of their longstanding belief in the sovereignty of truth and Koranic justice, in the referendum of 29 and 30 March 1979, through the affirmative vote of a majority of 98.2% of eligible voters, held after the victorious Islamic Revolution led by Imam Khumayni.
Article 2 [Foundational Principles]
The Islamic Republic is a system based on belief in:
1) the One God (as stated in the phrase "There is no god except Allah"), His exclusive sovereignty and right to legislate, and the necessity of submission to His commands;
2) Divine revelation and its fundamental role in setting forth the laws;
3) the return to God in the Hereafter, and the constructive role of this belief in the course of man's ascent towards God;
4) the justice of God in creation and legislation;
5) continuous leadership and perpetual guidance, and its fundamental role in ensuring the uninterrupted process of the revolution of Islam;
6) the exalted dignity and value of man, and his freedom coupled with responsibility before God; in which equity, justice, political, economic, social, and cultural independence, and national solidarity are secured by recourse to:
a) continuous leadership of the holy persons, possessing necessary qualifications, exercised on the basis of the Koran and the Sunnah, upon all of whom be peace;
b) sciences and arts and the most advanced results of human experience, together with the effort to advance them further;
c) negation of all forms of oppression, both the infliction of and the submission to it, and of dominance, both its imposition and its acceptance.
Article 3 [State Goals]
In order to attain the objectives specified in Article 2, the government of the Islamic Republic of Iran has the duty of directing all its resources to the following goals:
1) the creation of a favorable environment for the growth of moral virtues based on faith and piety and the struggle against all forms of vice and corruption;
2) raising the level of public awareness in all areas, through the proper use of the press, mass media, and other means;
3) free education and physical training for everyone at all levels, and the facilitation and expansion of higher education;
4) strengthening the spirit of inquiry, investigation, and innovation in all areas of science, technology, and culture, as well as Islamic studies, by establishing research centers and encouraging researchers;
5) the complete elimination of imperialism and the prevention of foreign influence;
6) the elimination of all forms of despotism and autocracy and all attempts to monopolize power;
7) ensuring political and social freedoms within the framework of the law;
8) the participation of the entire people in determining their political, economic, social, and cultural destiny;
9) the abolition of all forms of undesirable discrimination and the provision of equitable opportunities for all, in both the material and the intellectual spheres;
10) the creation of a correct administrative system and elimination of superfluous government organizations;
11) all round strengthening of the foundations of national defence to the utmost degree by means of universal military training for the sake of safeguarding the independence, territorial integrity, and the Islamic order of the country;
12) the planning of a correct and just economic system, in accordance with Islamic criteria, in order to create welfare, eliminate poverty, and abolish all forms of deprivation with respect to food, housing, work, health care, and the provision of social insurance for all;
13) the attainment of self-sufficiency in scientific, technological, industrial, agricultural, and military domains, and other similar spheres;
14) securing the multifarious rights of all citizens, both women and men, and providing legal protection for all, as well as the equality63 of all before the law;
15) the expansion and strengthening of Islamic brotherhood and public cooperation among all the people;
16) framing the foreign policy of the country on the basis of Islamic criteria, fraternal commitment to all Muslims, and unsparing support to the freedom fighters of the world.
Article 4 [Islamic Principle]
All civil, penal financial, economic, administrative, cultural, military, political, and other laws and regulations must be based on Islamic criteria. This principle applies absolutely and generallyto all articles of the Constitution as well as to all other laws and regulations, and the wise persons of the Guardian Council are judges in this matter.
Article 5 [Office of Religious Leader]
During the occultation of the Wali al-'Asr (may God hasten his reappearance), the leadership of the Ummah devolve upon the just and pious person, who is fully aware of the circumstances of his age, courageous, resourceful, and possessed of administrative ability, will assume the responsibilities of this office in accordance with Article 107.
Article 6 [Administration of Affairs]
In the Islamic Republic of Iran, the affairs of the country must be administered on the basis of public opinion expressed by the means of elections, including the election of the President, the representatives of the Islamic Consultative Assembly, and the members of councils, or by means of referenda in matters specified in other articles of this Constitution.
Article 7 [Consultative Bodies]
(1) In accordance with the command of the Koran contained in the verse "Their affairs are by consultations among them" [42:38] and "Consult them in affairs" [3:159], consultative bodies -- such as the Islamic Consultative Assembly, the Provincial Councils, and the City, Region, District, and Village Councils and the likes of them -- are the decision-making and administrative organs of the country.
(2) The nature each of these councils, together with the manner of their formation, their jurisdiction, and scope of their duties and functions, is determined by the Constitution and laws derived from it.
Article 8 [Community Principle]
In the Islamic Republic of Iran, "al-'amr bilma'ruf wa al-nahy 'an al-munkar" is a universal and reciprocal duty that must be fulfilled by the people with respect to one another, by the government with respect to the people, and by the people with respect to the government. The conditions, limits, and nature of this duty will be specified by law. (This is in accordance with the Koranic verse "The believers, men and women, are guardians of one another; they enjoin the good and forbid the evil." [9:71])
Article 9 [Independence Principle]
In the Islamic Republic of Iran, the freedom, independence, unity, and territorial integrity of the country are inseparable from one another, and their preservation is the duty of the government and all individual citizens. No individual, group, or authority, has the right to infringe in the slightest way upon the political, cultural, economic, and military independence or the territorial integrity of Iran under the pretext of exercising freedom. Similarly, no authority has the right to abrogate legitimate freedoms, not even by enacting laws and regulations for that purpose, under the pretext of preserving the independence and territorial integrity of the country.
Article 10 [Family Principle]
Since the family is the fundamental unit of Islamic society, all laws, regulations, and pertinent programs must tend to facilitate the formation of a family, and to safeguard its sanctity and the stability of family relations on the basis of the law and the ethics of Islam.
Article 11 [Unity of Islam Principle]
In accordance with the sacred verse of the Koran "This yourcommunity is a single community, and I am your Lord, so worship Me" [21:92], all Muslims form a single nation, and the government of the Islamic Republic of Iran have the duty of formulating its general policies with a view to cultivating the friendship and unity of all Muslim peoples, and it must constantly strive to bring about the political, economic, and cultural unity of the Islamic world.
Article 12 [Official Religion]
The official religion of Iran is Islam and the Twelver Ja'fari school, and this principle will remain eternally immutable. Other Islamic schools are to be accorded full respect, and their followers are free to act in accordance with their own jurisprudence in performing their religious rites. These schools enjoy official status in matters pertaining to religious education, affairs of personal status (marriage, divorce, inheritance, and wills) and related litigation in courts of law. In regions of the country where Muslims following any one of these schools constitute the majority, local regulations, within the bounds of the jurisdiction of local councils, are to be in accordance with the respective school, without infringing upon the rights of the followers of other schools.
Article 13 [Recognized Religious Minorities]
Zoroastrian, Jewish, and Christian Iranians are the only recognized religious minorities, who, within the limits of the law, are free to perform their religious rites and ceremonies, and to act according to their own canon in matters of personal affairs and religious education.
Article 14 [Non-Muslims' Rights]
In accordance with the sacred verse "God does not forbid you to deal kindly and justly with those who have not fought against you because of your religion and who have not expelled you from your homes" [60:8], the government of the Islamic Republic of Iran and all Muslims are duty-bound to treat non-Muslims in conformity with ethical norms and the principles of Islamic justice and equity, and to respect their human rights. This principle applies to all who refrain from engaging in conspiracy or activity against Islam and the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Chapter II The Official Language, Script, Calendar, and Flag of the Country
Article 15 [Official Language]
The Official Language and script of Iran, the lingua franca of its people, is Persian. Official documents, correspondence, and texts, as well as text-books, must be in this language and script. However, the use of regional and tribal languages in the press and mass media, as well as for teaching of their literature in schools, is allowed in addition to Persian.
Article 16 [Arabic Language]
Since the language of the Koran and Islamic texts and teachings is Arabic, and since Persian literature is thoroughly permeated by this language, it must be taught after elementary level, in all classes of secondary school and in all areas of study.
Article 17 [Official Calendar]
The Official Calendar of the country takes as its point of departure the migration of the Prophet of Islam -- God's peace and blessings upon him and his Family. Both the solar and lunar Islamic calendars are recognized, but government offices will function according to the solar calendar. The official weekly holiday is Friday.
Article 18 [Official Flag]
The Official Flag of Iran is composed of green, white, and red colors, with the special emblem of the Islamic Republic, together with the State Motto.
Chapter III The Rights of the People
Article 19 [No Discrimination, No Privileges]
All people of Iran, whatever the ethnic group or tribe to which they belong, enjoy equal rights; color, race, language, and the like, do not bestow any privilege.
Article 20 [Equality Before Law]
All citizens of the country, both men and women, equally enjoy the protection of the law and enjoy all human, political, economic, social, and cultural rights, in conformity with Islamic criteria.
Article 21 [Women's Rights]
The government must ensure the rights of women in all respects, in conformity with Islamic criteria, and accomplish the following goals:
1) create a favorable environment for the growth of woman's personality and the restoration of her rights, both the material and intellectual;
2) the protection of mothers, particularly during pregnancy and child-rearing, and the protection of children without guardians;
3) establishing competent courts to protect and preserve the family;
4) the provision of special insurance for widows, aged women, and women without support;
5) the awarding of guardianship of children to worthy mothers, in order to protect the interests of the children, in the absence of a legal guardian.
Article 22 [Human Dignity and Rights]
The dignity6111, life, property622, rights, residence, and occupation of the individual are inviolate, except in cases sanctioned by law.
Article 23 [Freedom of Belief]
The investigation of individuals' beliefs is forbidden, and no one may be molested or taken to task simply for holding a certain belief.623
Article 24 [Freedom of the Press]
Publications and the press have freedom of expression6242 except when it is detrimental to the fundamental principles of Islam or the rights of the public. The details of this exception will be specified by law.
Article 25 [Secrecy of Communication]
The inspection of letters and the failure to deliver them, the recording and disclosure of telephone conversations, the disclosure of telegraphic and telex communications, censorship, or the wilful failure to transmit them, eavesdropping, and all forms of covert investigation are forbidden, except as provided by law.
Article 26 [Freedom of Association]
The formation of parties, societies, political or professional associations, as well as religious societies, whether Islamic or pertaining to one of the recognized religious minorities, is permitted provided they do not violate the principles of independence, freedom, national unity, the criteria of Islam, or the basis of the Islamic Republic. No one may be preventedfrom participating in the aforementioned groups, or be compelled to participate in them.
Article 27 [Freedom of Assembly]
Public gatherings and marches may be freely held, provided arms are not carried and that they are not detrimental to the fundamental principles of Islam.
Article 28 [Work]
(1) Everyone has the right to choose any occupation he wishes, if it is not contrary to Islam and the public interests, and does not infringe the rights of others.
(2) The government has the duty, with due consideration of the need of society for different kinds of work, to provide every citizen with the opportunity to work, and to create equal conditions for obtaining it.
Article 29 [Welfare Rights]
(1) To benefit from social security with respect to retirement, unemployment, old age, disability, absence of a guardian, and benefits relating to being stranded, accidents, health services, and medical care and treatment, provided through insurance or other means, is accepted as a universal right.
(2) The government must provide the foregoing services and financial support for every individual citizen by drawing, in accordance with the law, on the national revenues and funds obtained through public contributions.
Article 30 [Education]
The government must provide all citizen with free education up to secondary school, and must expand free higher education to the extent required by the country for attaining self-sufficiency.
Article 31 [Housing]
It is the right of every Iranian individual and family to possess housing commensurate with his needs. The government must make land available for the implementation of this article, according priority to those whose need is greatest, in particular the rural population and the workers.
Article 32 [Arrest]
No one may be arrested except by the order and in accordance with the procedure laid down by law. In case of arrest, charges with the reasons for accusation must, without delay, be communicated and explained to the accused in writing, and a provisional dossier must be forwarded to the competent judicial authorities within a maximum of twenty-four hours so that the preliminaries to the trial can be completed as swiftly as possible. The violation of this article will be liable to punishment in accordance with the law.
Article 33 [Residence]
No one can be banished from his place of residence, prevented from residing in the place of his choice, or compelled to reside in a given locality, except in cases provided by law.
Article 34 [Recourse to the Courts]
It is the indisputable right of every citizen to seek justice by recourse to competent courts. All citizens have right of access to such courts, and no one can be barred from courts to which he has a legal right of recourse.
Article 35 [Right to Counsel]
Both parties to a lawsuit have the right in all courts of law to select an attorney, and if they are unable to do so, arrangements must be made to provide them with legal counsel.
Article 36 [Sentencing]
The passing and execution of a sentence must be only by a competent court and in accordance with law.
Article 37 [Presumption of Innocense]
Innocence is to be presumed, and no one is to be held guilty of a charge unless his or her guilt has been established by a competent court.
Article 38 [Torture]
All forms of torture for the purpose of extracting confession or acquiring information are forbidden. Compulsion of individuals to testify, confess, or take an oath is not permissible; and any testimony, confession, or oath obtained under duress is devoid of value and credence. Violation of this article is liable to punishment in accordance with the law.
Article 39 [Dignity of Arrested]
All affronts to the dignity and repute of persons arrested, detained, imprisoned, or banished in accordance with the law, whatever form they may take, are forbidden and liable to punishment.
Article 40 [Public Interest]
No one is entitled to exercise his rights in a way injurious to others or detrimental to public interests.
Article 41 [Citizenship]
Iranian citizenship is the indisputable right of every Iranian, and the government cannot withdraw citizenship from any Iranian unless he himself requests it or acquires the citizenship of another country.
Article 42 [Nationalization]
Foreign nationals may acquire Iranian citizenship within the framework of the laws. Citizenship may be withdrawn from such persons if another State accepts them as its citizens or if they request it.
Chapter IV Economy and Financial Affairs
Article 43 [Principles]
The economy of the Islamic Republic of Iran, with its objectives of achieving the economic independence of the society, uprooting poverty and deprivation, and fulfilling human needs in the process of development while preserving human liberty, is based on the following criteria:
1. the provision of basic necessities for all citizens: housing, food, clothing, hygiene, medical treatment, education, and the necessary facilities for the establishment of a family;
2. ensuring conditions and opportunities of employment for everyone, with a view to attaining full employment; placing the means of work at the disposal of everyone who is able to work but lacks the means, in the form of cooperatives, through granting interest-free loans or recourse to any other legitimate means that neither results in the concentration or circulation of wealth in the hands of a few individuals or groups, nor turns the government into a major absolute employer. These steps must be taken with due regard for the requirements governing the general economic planning of the country at each stage of its growth;
3. the plan for the national economy must be structured in such a manner that the form, content, and hours of work of every individual will allow him sufficient leisure and energy to engage, beyond his professional endeavor, in intellectual, political, and social activities leading to all-round developmentof his self, to take active part in leading the affairs of the country, improve his skills, and to make full use of his creativity;
4. respect for the right to choose freely an occupation; refraining from compelling anyone to engage in a particular job; and preventing the exploitation of another's labor;
5. the prohibition of infliction of harm and loss upon others, monopoly, hoarding, usury, and other illegitimate and evil practices;
6. the prohibition of extravagance and wastefulness in all matters related to the economy, including consumption, investment, production, distribution, and services;
7. the utilization of and the training of skilled personnel in accordance with the developmental needs of the country's economy;
8. prevention of foreign economic domination over the country's economy:
9. emphasis on increase of agricultural, livestock, and industrial production in order to satisfy public needs and to make the country self-sufficient and free from dependence.
Article 44 [Sectors]
(1) The economy of the Islamic Republic of Iran is to consist of three sectors: state, cooperative, and private, and is to be based on systematic and sound planning.
(2) The state sector is to include all large-scale and mother industries, foreign trade, major minerals, banking, insurance, power generation, dams, and large-scale irrigation networks, radio and television, post, telegraph and telephone services, aviation, shipping, roads, railroads and the like; all these will be publicly owned and adMinistered by the State.
(3) The cooperative sector is to include cooperative companies and enterprises concerned with production and distribution, in urban and rural areas, in accordance with Islamic criteria.
(4) The private sector consists of those activities concerned with agriculture, animal husbandry, industry, trade, and services that supplement the economic activities of the state and cooperative sectors.
(5) Ownership in each of these three sectors is protected by the laws of the Islamic Republic, in so far as this ownership is in conformity with the other articles of this chapter, does not go beyond the bounds of Islamic law, contributes to the economic growth and progress of the country and does not harm society.
(6) The scope of each of these sectors as well as the regulations and conditions governing their operation, will be specified by law.
Article 45 [Public Wealth]
Public wealth and property, such as uncultivated or abandoned land, mineral deposits, seas, lakes, rivers and other public waterways, mountains, valleys, forests, marshlands, natural forests, unenclosed pastures, legacies without heirs, property of undetermined ownership, and public property recovered from usurpers, shall be at the disposal of the Islamic government for it to utilize in accordance with the public interest. Law will specify detailed procedures for the utilization of each of the foregoing items.
Article 46 [Fruits of Business]
Everyone is the owner of the fruits of his legitimate business and labor, and no one may deprive another of the opportunity of business and work under the pretext of his right to ownership.
Article 47 [Private Property]
Private ownership, legitimately acquired, is to be respected. The relevant criteria are determined by law.
Article 48 [Resources for Regions]
There must be no discrimination among the various provinces with regard to the exploitation of natural resources, utilization of public revenues, and distribution of economic activities among the various provinces and regions of the country, thereby ensuring that every region has access to the necessary capital and facilities in accordance with its needs and capacity for growth.
Article 49 [Confiscation]
The government has the responsibility of confiscating all wealth accumulated through usury, usurpation, bribery, embezzlement, theft, gambling, misuse of endowments, misuse of government contracts and transactions, the sale of uncultivated lands and other resources subject to public ownership, the operation of centers of corruption, and other illicit means and sources, and restoring it to its legitimate owner; and if no such owner can be identified, it must be entrusted to the public treasury. This rule must be executed by the government with due care, after investigation and furnishing necessary evidence in accordance with the law of Islam.
Article 50 [Preservation of the Environment]
The preservation of the environment, in which the present as well as the future generations have a right to flourishing social existence, is regarded as a public duty in the Islamic Republic. Economic and other activities that inevitably involve pollution of the environment or cause irreparable damage to it are therefore forbidden.
Article 51 [Taxation]
No form of taxation may be imposed except in accordance with the law. Provisions for tax exemption and reduction will be determined by law.
Article 52 [Budget]
The annual budget5325 of the country will be drawn up by the government in the manner specified by law and submitted to the Islamic Consultative Assembly for discussion and approval. Any change in the figures contained in the budget will be in accordance with the procedure prescribed by law.
Article 53 [Central Treasury]
All sums collected by the government will be deposited into the government accounts at the central treasury, and all disbursements, within the limits of allocations approved, shall be made in accordance with law.
Article 54 [Acounting Agency]
The National Accounting Agency is to be directly under the supervision of the Islamic Consultative Assembly. Its organization and mode of operation in Tehran and at the provincial capitals are to be determined by law.
Article 55 [Auditing, Report]
The National Accounting Agency will inspect and audit, in the manner prescribed by law, all the accounts of ministries, government institutions, and companies as well as other organizations that draw, in any way, on the general budget of the country, to ensure that no expenditure exceeds the allocations approved and that all sums are spent for the specified purpose. It will collect all relevant accounts, documents, and records, in accordance with law, and submit to the Islamic Consultative Assembly a report for the settlement ofeach year's budget together with its own comments. This report must be made available to the public.
Chapter V The Right of National Sovereignty
Article 56 [Divine Right of Sovereignty]
Absolute sovereignty over the world and man belongs to God, and it is He Who has made man master of his own social destiny. No one can deprive man of this divine right, nor subordinate it to the vested interests of a particular individual or group. The people are to exercise this divine right in the manner specified in the following articles.
Article 57 [Separation of Powers]
The powers of government in the Islamic Republic are vested in the legislature, the judiciary, and the executive powers, functioning under the supervision of the absolute religious Leader and the Leadership of the Ummah, in accordance with the forthcoming articles of this Constitution. These powers are independent of each other.
Article 58 [Legislature]
The functions of the legislature are to be exercised through the Islamic Consultative Assembly, consisting of the elected representatives of the people. Legislation approved by this body, after going through the stages specified in the articles below, is communicated to the executive and the judiciary for implementation.
Article 59 [Mandatory Referendum]
In extremely important economic, political, social, and cultural matters, the functions of the legislature may be exercised through direct recourse to popular vote through a referendum. Any request for such direct recourse to public opinion must be approved by two-thirds of the members of the Islamic Consultative Assembly.
Article 60 [Executive]
The functions of the executive, except in the matters that are directly placed under the jurisdiction of the Leadership by the Constitution, are to be exercised by the President and the Ministers.
Article 61 [Judiciary]
The functions of the judiciary are to be performed by courts of justice, which are to be formed in accordance with the criteria of Islam, and are vested with the authority to examine and settle lawsuits, protect the rights of the public, dispense and enact justice, and implement the Divine limits.
Chapter VI The Legislative Powers
Section 1 The Islamic Consultative Assembly
Article 62 [Election]
(1) The Islamic Consultative Assembly532 is constituted by the representatives of the people elected directly and by secret ballot.6271
(2) The qualifications of voters and candidates, as well as the nature of election, will be specified by law.
Article 63 [Term]
The term of membership in the Islamic Consultative Assembly is four years. Elections for each term must take place before the end of the preceding term, so that the country is never without an Assembly.
Article 64 [270 Members, Religious Representatives]
(1) There are to be two hundred seventy members of the Islamic Consultative Assembly which, keeping in view the human, political, geographic, and other similar factors, may increase by not more than twenty for each ten-year period from the date of the national referendum of the year 1368 of the solar Islamic calendar.
(2) The Zoroastrians and Jews will each elect one representative; Assyrian and Chaldean Christians will jointly elect one representative; and Armenian Christians in the north and those in the south of the country will each elect one representative.
(3) The delimitation of the election constituencies and the number of representatives will be determined by law.
Article 65 [Quorum, Code of Procedure]
(1) After the holding of elections, sessions of the Islamic Consultative Assembly are considered legally valid when two-thirds of the total number of members are present. Drafts and bills will be approved in accordance with the code of procedure approved by it, except in cases where the Constitution has specified a certain quorum.
(2) The consent of two-thirds of all members present is necessary for the approval of the code of procedure of the Assembly.
Article 66 [Rules of Procedure]
The manner of election of the Speaker and the Presiding Board of the Assembly, the number of committees and their term of office, and matters related to conducting the discussions and maintaining the discipline of the assembly will be determined by the code of procedure of the Assembly.
Article 67 [Oath]
(1) Members of the Assembly must take the following oath at the first session of the Assembly and affix their signatures to its text:
"In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful. In the presence of the Glorious Koran, I swear by God, the Exalted and Almighty, and undertake, swearing by my own honor as a human being, to protect the sanctity of Islam and guard the accomplishments of the Islamic Revolution of the Iranian people and the foundations of the Islamic Republic; to protect, as a just trustee, the honor bestowed upon me by the people, to observe piety in fulfilling my duties as people's representative; to remain always committed to the independence and honor of the country; to fulfil my duties towards the nation and the service of the people; to defend the Constitution; and to bear in mind, boath in speech and writing and in the expression of my views, the independence of the country, the freedom of the people, and the security of their interests."
(2) Members belonging to the religious minorities will swear by their own sacred books while taking this oath.
(3) Members not attending the first session will perform the ceremony of taking the oath at the first session they attend.
Article 68 [Suspended Elections During Wartime]
In time of war and the military occupation of the country, elections due to be held in occupied areas or countrywide may be suspended for a specified period if proposed by the President of the Republic, and approved by three-fourths of the total members of the Islamic Consultative Assembly, with the endorsement of the Guardian Council. If a new Assembly is not formed, the previous one will continue to function.
Article 69 [Publicity, Closed Sessions]
The deliberations of the Islamic Consultative Assembly must be open and full minutes of them made available to the public by the radio and the official gazette. A closed session may be held in emergency conditions, if it is required for national security, upon the requisition of the President, one of the Ministers, or ten members of the Assembly. Legislation passed at a closed session is valid only when approved by three-fourths of the members in the presence of the Guardian Council. After emergency conditions have ceased to exist, the minutes of such closed sessions, together with any legislation approved in them, must be made available to the public.
Article 70 [Government Attendance]
The President, his deputies and the Ministers have the right to participate in the open sessions of the Assembly either collectively or individually. They may also have their advisers accompany them. If the members of the Assembly deem it necessary, the Ministers are obliged to attend. Whenever they request it, their statements are to be heard.
Section 2 Powers and Authority of the Islamic Consultative Assembly
Article 71 [Legislation]
The Islamic Consultative Assembly can establish laws5323 on all matters, within the limits of its competence as laid down in the Constitution.
Article 72 [Limits]
The Islamic Consultative Assembly cannot enact laws contrary to the official religion of the country or to the Constitution. It is the duty of the Guardian Council to determine whether a violation has occurred, in accordance with Article 96.
Article 73 [Interpretation of Laws]
The interpretation of ordinary laws falls within the competence of the Islamic Consultative Assembly. The intent of this article does not prevent the interpretations that judges may make in the course of cassation.
Article 74 [Bills]
Government bills are presented to the Islamic Consultative Assembly after receiving the approval of the Council of Ministers. Members' bills may be introduced in the Islamic Consultative Assembly if sponsored by at least fifteen members.
Article 75 [Spending Bills]
Members' bills and proposals and amendments to government bills proposed by members that entail the reduction of the public income or the increase of public expenditure may be introduced in the Assembly only if means for compensating for the decrease in income or for meeting the new expenditure are also specified.
Article 76 [Investigation]
The Islamic Consultative Assembly has the right to investigate and examine all the affairs of the country.
Article 77 [Treaties]
International treaties, protocols, contracts, and agreements must be approved by the Islamic Consultative Assembly.
Article 78 [Boundary Laws]
All changes in the boundaries of the country are forbidden, with the exception of minor amendments in keeping with the interests of the country, on condition that they are not unilateral, do not encroach on the independence and territorialintegrity of the country, and receive the approval of four-fifths of the total members of the Islamic Consultative Assembly.
Article 79 [Martial Law, Temporary Restrictions]
The proclamation of martial law is forbidden. In case of war or emergency conditions comparable to war, the government has the right to impose temporarily certain necessary restrictions, with the agreement of the Islamic Consultative Assembly. In no case can such restrictions last for more than thirty days; if the need for them persists beyond this limit, the government must obtain new authorization for them from the Assembly.
Article 80 [Aid]
The taking and giving of governmental loans or grants-in-aid, domestic and foreign, must be approved by the Islamic Consultative Assembly.
Article 81 [Foreign Business]
The granting of concessions to foreigners or the formation of companies or institutions dealing with commerce, industry, agriculture, service, or mineral extraction, is absolutely forbidden.
Article 82 [Foreign Experts]
The employment of foreign experts is forbidden, except in cases of necessity and with the approval of the Islamic Consultative Assembly.
Article 83 [Property of National Heritage]
Government buildings and properties forming part of the national heritage cannot be transferred except with the approval of the Islamic Consultative Assembly; that, too, is not applicable in the case of irreplaceable treasures.
Article 84 [Responsibility]
Every representative is responsible to the entire nation and has the right to express his views on all internal and external affairs of the country.
Article 85 [Delegated Legislation]
(1) The right of membership is vested with the individual, and is not transferable to others. The Assembly cannot delegate the power of legislation to an individual or committee. But whenever necessary, it can delegate the power of legislating certain laws to its own committees, in accordance with Article 72. In such a case, the laws will be implemented on a tentative basis for a period specified by the Assembly, and their final approval will rest with the Assembly.
(2) Likewise, the Assembly may, in accordance with Article 72, delegate to the relevant committees the responsibility for permanent approval of articles of association of organizations, companies, government institutions, or organizations affiliated to the government and or invest the authority in the government. In such a case, the government approvals must not be inconsistent with the principles and commandments of the official religion in the country or with the Constitution, which question shall be determined by the Guardian Council in accordance with what is stated in Article 96. In addition to this, the Government approvals shall not be against the laws and other general rules of the country and, while calling for implementation, the same shall be brought to the knowledge of the Speaker of the Islamic Consultative Assembly for his study and indication that the approvals in question are not inconsistent with the aforesaid rules.
Article 86 [Independence, Indemnity]
Members of the Assembly are completely free in expressing their views and casting their votes in the course of performing their duties as representatives, and they cannot be prosecuted or arrested for opinions expressed in the Assembly or votes cast in the course of performing their duties as representatives.
Article 87 [Vote of Confidence]
The President must obtain, for the Council of Ministers, after being formed and before all other business, a vote of confidence from the Assembly. During his incumbency, he can also seek a vote of confidence for the Council of Ministers from the Assembly on important and controversial issues.
Article 88 [Questioning Government]
Whenever at least one-fourth of the total members of the Islamic Consultative Assembly pose a question to the President, or any one member of the Assembly poses a question to a Minister on a subject relating to their duties, the President or the Minister is obliged to attend the Assembly and answer the question. This answer must not be delayed more than one month in the case of the President and ten days in the case of the Minister, except with an excuse deemed reasonable by the Islamic Consultative Assembly.
Article 89 [Interpellation]
(1) Members of the Islamic Consultative Assembly can interpellate the Council of Ministers or an individual Minister in instances they deem necessary. Interpellations can be tabled if they bear the signatures of at least ten members.
The Council of Ministers or interpellated Minister must be present in the Assembly within ten days after the tabling of the interpellation in order to answer it and seek a vote of confidence. If the Council of Ministers or the Minister concerned fails to attend the Assembly, the members who tabled the interpellation will explain their reasons, and the Assembly will declare a vote of no confidence if it deems it necessary.
If the Assembly does not pronounce a vote of confidence, the Council of Ministers or the Minister subject to interpellation is dismissed. In both cases, the Ministers subject to interpellation cannot become members of the next Council of Ministers formed immediately afterwards.
(2) In the event at least one-third of the members of the Islamic Consultative Assembly interpellate the President concerning his executive responsibilities in relation with the Executive Power and the executive affairs of the country the President must be present in the Assembly within one month after the tabling of the interpellation in order to give adequate explanations in regard to the matters raised. In the event, after hearing the statements of the opposing and favoring members and the reply of the President, two-thirds of the members of the Assembly declare a vote of no confidence, the same will be communicated to the Leadership for information and implementation of Article 110 (10).
Article 90 [Complaints, Petitions]
Whoever has a complaint concerning the work of the Assembly or the executive power or the judicial power can forward his complaint in writing to the Assembly. The Assembly must investigate his complaint and give a satisfactory reply. In cases where the complaint relates to the executive or the judiciary, the Assembly must demand proper investigation in the matter and an adequate explanation from them, and announce the results within a reasonable time. In cases where the subject of the complaint is of public interest, the reply must be madepublic.
Article 91 [Guardian Council]
With a view to safeguard the Islamic ordinances and the Constitution, in order to examine the compatibility of the legislation passed by the Islamic Consultative Assembly with Islam, a council to be known as the Guardian Council is to be constituted with the following composition:
1. six religious men, conscious of the present needs and the issues of the day, to be selected by the Leader, and
2. six jurists, specializing in different areas of law, to be elected by the Islamic Consultative Assembly from among the Muslim jurists nominated by the Head of the Judicial Power.
Article 92 [Term]
Members of the Guardian Council are elected to serve for a period of six years, but during the first term, after three years have passed, half of the members of each group will be changed by lot and new members will be elected in their place.
Article 93 [Mandatory Formation]
The Islamic Consultative Assembly does not hold any legal status if there is no Guardian Council in existence, except for the purpose of approving the credentials of its members and the election of the six jurists on the Guardian Council.
Article 94 [Review of Legislation]
All legislation passed by the Islamic Consultative Assembly must be sent to the Guardian Council. The Guardian Council must review it within a maximum of ten days from its receipt with a view to ensuring its compatibility with the criteria of Islam and the Constitution. If it finds the legislation incompatible, it will return it to the Assembly for review. Otherwise the legislation will be deemed enforceable.
Article 95 [Extended Review]
In cases where the Guardian Council deems ten days inadequate for completing the process of review and delivering a definite opinion, it can request the Islamic Consultative Assembly to grant an extension of the time limit not exceeding ten days.
Article 96 [Majority]
The determination of compatibility of the legislation passed by the Islamic Consultative Assembly with the laws of Islam rests with the majority vote of the religious men on the Guardian Council; and the determination of its compatibility with the Constitution rests with the majority of all the members of the Guardian Council.
Article 97 [Attendance in Parliament]
In order to expedite the work, the members of the Guardian Council may attend the Assembly and listen to its debates when a government bill or a members' bill is under discussion. When an urgent government or members' bill is placed on the agenda of the Assembly, the members of the Guardian Council must attend the Assembly and make their views known.
Article 98 [Authoritative Interpretation]
The authority of the interpretation of the Constitution is vested with the Guardian Council, which is to be done with the consent of three-fourths of its members.
Article 99 [Supervision of Elections]
The Guardian Council has the responsibility of supervising the elections of the Assembly of Experts for Leadership, the President of the Republic, the Islamic Consultative Assembly,and the direct recourse to popular opinion and referenda.
Chapter VII Councils
Article 100 [Regional Councils]
(1) In order to expedite social, economic, development, public health, cultural, and educational programs and facilitate other affairs relating to public welfare with the cooperation of the people according to local needs, the administration of each village, division, city, municipality, and province will be superseded by a council to be named the Village, Division, City, Municipality, or Provincial Council.528 Members of each of these councils will be elected by the people of the locality in question.
(2) Qualifications for the eligibility of electors and candidates for these councils, as well as their functions and powers, the mode of election, the council jurisdiction, and the hierarchy of their authority will be determined by law in such a way as to preserve national unity, territorial integrity, the system of the Islamic Republic, and the sovereignty of the central government.
Article 101 [Supreme Council of the Provinces]
(1) In order to prevent discrimination in the preparation of programs for the development and welfare of the provinces, to secure the cooperation of the people, and to arrange for the supervision of coordinated implementation of such programs, a Supreme Council of the Provinces will be formed, composed of representatives of the Provincial Councils.
(2) Law will specify the manner in which this council is to be formed and the functions that it is to fulfil.
Article 102 [Council Bills]
The Supreme Council of the Provinces has the right within its jurisdiction, to draft bills and to submit them to the Islamic Consultative Assembly, either directly or through the government. These bills must be examined by the Assembly.
Article 103 [Power Over Local Governments]
Provincial governors, city governors, divisional governors, and other officials appointed by the government must abide by all decisions taken by the councils within their jurisdiction.
Article 104 [Worker Councils]
(1) In order to ensure Islamic equity and cooperation in carrying out the programs and to bring about the harmonious progress of all units of production, both industrial and agricultural, councils consisting of the representatives of the workers, peasants, other employees, and managers, will be formed in educational and administrative units, units of service industries, and other units of a like nature, similar councils will be formed, composed of representatives of the members of those units.
(2) The mode of the formation of these councils and the scope of their functions and powers, are to be specified by law.
Article 105 [Limits]
Decisions taken by the councils must not be contrary to the criteria of Islam and the laws of the country.
Article 106 [Right Against Dissolution]
(1) The councils may not be dissolved unless they deviate from their legal duties. The body responsible for determining such deviation, as well as the manner for dissolving the councils and reforming them, will be specified by law.
(2) Should a council have any objection to its dissolution, it hasthe right to appeal to a competent court, and the court is duty-bound to examine its complaint outside the docket sequence.
Chapter VIII The Leader or Leadership Council
Article 107 [Religious Leader]
(1) After the demise of Imam Khumayni, the task of appointing the Leader51 shall be vested with the experts elected by the people. The experts will review and consult among themselves concerning all the religious men possessing the qualifications specified in Articles 5 and 109. In the event they find one of them better versed in Islamic regulations or in political and social issues, or possessing general popularity or special prominence for any of the qualifications mentioned in Article 109, they shall elect him as the Leader. Otherwise, in the absence of such a superiority, they shall elect and declare one of them as the Leader. The Leader thus elected by the Assembly of Experts shall assume all the powers of the religious leader and all the responsibilities arising therefrom.
(2) The Leader is equal with the rest of the people of the country in the eyes of law.
Article 108 [Experts]
The law setting out the number and qualifications of the experts, the mode of their election, and the code of procedure regulating the sessions during the first term must be drawn up by the religious men on the first Guardian Council, passed by a majority of votes and then finally approved by the Leader of the Revolution. The power to make any subsequent change or a review of this law, or approval of all the provisions concerning the duties of the experts is vested in themselves.
Article 109 [Leadership Qualifications]
(1) Following are the essential qualifications and conditions for the Leader:
a. Scholarship, as required for performing the functions of religious leader in different fields.
b. Justice and piety, as required for the leadership of the Islamic Ummah.
c. Right political and social perspicacity, prudence, courage, administrative facilities, and adequate capability for leadership.
(2) In case of multiplicity of persons fulfilling the above qualifications and conditions, the person possessing the better jurisprudential and political perspicacity will be given preference.
Article 110 [Leadership Duties and Powers]
(1) Following are the duties and powers of the Leadership:
1. Delineation of the general policies of the Islamic Republic of Iran after consultation with the Nation's Exigency Council.
2. Supervision over the proper execution of the general policies of the system.
3. Issuing decrees for national referenda.
4. Assuming supreme command of the Armed Forces.
5. Declaration of war and peace and the mobilization of the Armed Forces.
6. Appointment, dismissal, and resignation of:
a. the religious men on the Guardian Council,
b. the supreme judicial authority of the country,
c. the head of the radio and television network of the Islamic Republic of Iran,
d. the chief of the joint staff,
e. the chief commander of the Isalmic Revolution Guards Corps, and
f. the supreme commanders of the Armed Forces.
7. Resolving differences between the three wings of the Armed Forces and regulation of their relations.
8. Resolving the problems which cannot be solved by conventional methods, through the Nation's Exigency Council.
9. Signing the decree formalizing the election of the President of the Republic by the people. The suitability of candidates for the Presidency of the Republic, with respect to the qualifications specified in the Constitution, must be confirmed before elections take place by the Guardian Council, and, in the case of the first term of a President, by the Leadership.
10. Dismissal of the President of the Republic, with due regard for the interests of the country, after the Supreme Court holds him guilty of the violation of his constitutional duties, or after a vote of the Islamic Consultative Assembly testifying to his incompetence on the basis of Article 89.
11. Pardoning or reducing the sentences of convicts, within the framework of Islamic criteria, on a recommendation from the Head of judicial power.
(2) The Leader may delegate part of his duties and powers to another person.
Article 111 [Leadership Council]
(1) Whenever the Leader becomes incapable of fulfilling his constitutional duties, or loses one of the qualifications mentioned in Articles 5 and 109, or it becomes known that he did not possess some of the qualifications initially, he will be dismissed. The authority of determination in this matter is vested with the experts specified in Article 108.
(2) In the event of the death, or resignation or dismissal of the Leader, the experts shall take steps within the shortest possible time for the appointment of the new Leader. Until the appointment of the new Leader, a council consisting of the President, head of the judiciary power, and a religious men from the Guardian Council, upon the decision of the Nation's Exigency Council, shall temporarily take over all the duties of the Leader. In the event that, during this period, any one of them is unable to fulfil his duties for whatsoever reason, another person, upon the decision of majority of religious men in the Nation's Exigency Council shall be elected in his place.
(3) This council shall take action in respect of items 1, 3, 5, and 10, and sections d, e and f of item 6 of Article 110, upon the decision of three-fourths of the members of the Nation's Exigency Council.
(4) Whenever the leader becomes temporarily unable to perform the duties of leadership owing to his illness or any other incident, then during this period, the council mentioned in this article shall assume his duties.
Article 112 [Exigency Council]
(1) Upon the order of the Leader, the Nation's Exigency Council shall meet at any time the Guardian Council judges a proposed bill of the Islamic Consultative Assembly to be against the principles of Sharrah or the Constitution, and the Assembly is unable to meet the expectations of the Guardian Council. Also, the Council shall meet for consideration on any issue forwarded to it by the Leader and shall carry out any other responsibility as mentioned in this Constitution.
(2) The permanent and changeable members of the Council shall be appointed by the Leader.
(3) The rule for the Council shall be formulated and approved by the Council members subject to the confirmation by the Leader.
Chapter IX The Executive Power
Section 1 The Presidency
Article 113 [President]
After the office of Leadership, the President is the highest official in the country. His is the responsibility for implementing the Constitution and acting as the head of the executive, except in matters directly concerned with the office of the Leadership.
Article 114 [Term]
The President is elected for a four-year term by the direct vote of the people. His re-election for a successive term is permissible only once.
Article 115 [Qualifications]
The President must be elected from among religious and political personalities possessing the following qualifications:
- Iranian origin;
- Iranian nationality;
- administrative capacity and resourcefulness;
- a good pastrecord;
- trustworthiness and piety; and
- convinced belief in the fundamental principles of the Islamic Republic of Iran and the official madhhab of the country.
Article 116 [Candidacy]
Candidates nominated for the post of President must declare their candidature officially. Law lays down the manner in which the President is to be elected.
Article 117 [Majority]
The President is elected by an absolute majority of votes polled by the voters. But if none of the candidates is able to win such a majority in the first round, voting will take place a second time on Friday of the following week. In the second round only the two candidates who received greatest number of votes in the first round will participate. If, however, some of the candidates securing greatest votes in the first round withdraw from the elections, the final choice will be between the two candidates who won greater number of votes than all the remaining candidates.
Article 118 [Supervisory Body]
Responsibility for the supervision of the election of the President lies with the Guardian Council, as stipulated in Article 99. But before the establishment of the first Guardian Council, it lies with a supervisory body to be constituted by law.
Article 119 [New Elections]
The election of a new President must take place no later than one month before the end of the term of the outgoing President. In the interim period before the election of the new President and the end of the term of the outgoing President, the outgoing President will perform the duties of the President.
Article 120 [Extensions]
In case any of the candidates whose suitability is established in terms of the qualifications listed above should die within ten days before polling day, the elections will be postponed for two weeks. If one of the candidates securing greatest number of votes dies in the intervening period between the first and second rounds of voting, the period for holding the second round of the election will be extended for two weeks.
Article 121 [Oath]
The President must take the following oath and affix his signature to it at a session of the Islamic Consultative Assemblyin the presence of the head of the judicial power and the members of the Guardian Council:
"In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful, I, as President, swear, in the presence of the noble members of parliament and the people of Iran, by God, the Exalted and Almighty, that I will guard the official religion of the country, the order of the Islamic Republic, and the Constitution of the country; that I will devote all my capacities and abilities to the fulfillment of the responsibilities that I have assumed; that I will dedicate myself to the service of the people, the honor of the country, the propagation of religion and morality, and the support of truth and justice, refraining from every kind of arbitrary behavior; that I will protect the freedom and dignity of all citizens and the rights that the Constitution has accorded the people; that in guarding the frontiers and the political, economic, and cultural independence of the country I will not avoid any necessary measure; that, seeking help from God and following the Prophet of Islam and the infallible Imams (peace be upon them), I will guard, as a pious and selfless trustee, the authority vested in me by the people as a sacred trust, and transfer it to whomever the people may elect after me."
Article 122 [Responsibility]
The President, within the limits of his powers and duties, which he has by virtue of this Constitution or other laws, is responsible to the people, the Leader and the Islamic Consultative Assembly.
Article 123 [Signing Legislation]
The President is obliged to sign legislation approved by the Assembly or the result of a referendum, after the legal procedures have been completed and it has been communicated to him. After signing, he must forward it to the responsible authorities for implementation.
Article 124 [Presidential Deputies]
(1) The President may have deputies for the performance of his constitutional duties.
(2) With the approval of the President, the first deputy of the President shall be vested with the responsibilities of adMinistering the affairs of the Council of Ministers and coordination of functions of other deputies.
Article 125 [Treaties]
The President or his legal representative has the authority to sign treaties, protocols, contracts, and agreements concluded by the Iranian government with other governments, as well as agreements pertaining to international organizations, after obtaining the approval of the Islamic Consultative Assembly.
Article 126 [Planning, Budget]
The President is responsible for national planning and budget and state employment affairs and may entrust the administration of these to others.
Article 127 [Special Representatives]
In special circumstances, subject to approval of the Council of Ministers, the President may appoint one or more special representatives with specific powers. In such cases, the decisions of his representative(s) will be considered as the same as those of the President and the Council of Ministers.
Article 128 [Ambassadors]
The ambassadors shall be appointed upon the recommendation of the foreign Minister and approval of the President. The President signs the credentials of ambassadors and receives thecredentials presented by the ambassadors of the foreign countries.
Article 129 [State Decorations]
The award of state decorations is a prerogative of the President.
Article 130 [Resignation]
The President shall submit his resignation to the Leader and shall continue performing his duties until his resignation is not accepted.
Article 131 [Interim President]
In case of death, dismissal, resignation, absence, or illness lasting longer than two months of the President or when his term in office has ended and a new president has not been elected due to some impediments, or similar other circumstances, his first deputy shall assume, with the approval of the Leader, the powers and functions of the President. The Council, consisting of the Speaker of the Islamic Consultative Assembly, head of the judicial power, and the first deputy of the President, is obliged to arrange for a new President to be elected within a maximum period of fifty days. In case of death of the first deputy to the President, or other matters which prevent him to perform his duties or when the President does not have a first deputy, the Leader shall appoint another person in his place.
Article 132 [Restricted Interim Period]
During the period when the powers and responsibilities of the President are assigned to his first deputy or the other person in accordance with Article 131, neither can the Ministers be interpellated nor can a vote of no confidence be passed against them. Also, neither can any step be undertaken for a review of the Constitution, nor a national referendum be held.
Section 2 The President and Ministers
Article 133 [Appointment of Ministers]
Ministers will be appointed by the President and will be presented to the Assembly for a vote of confidence. With the change of Assembly, a new vote of confidence will not be necessary. The number of Ministers and the jurisdiction of each will be determined by law.
Article 134 [Council of Ministers]
(1) The President is the head of the Council of Ministers525. He supervises the work of the Ministers and takes all necessary measures to coordinate the decisions of the government. With the cooperation of the Ministers, he determines the program and policies of the government and implements the laws.
(2) In the case of discrepancies or interferences in the constitutional duties of the government agencies, the decision of the Council of Ministers at the request of the President shall be binding provided it does not call for an interpretation of or modification in the laws.
(3) The President is responsible to the Assembly for the actions of the Council of Ministers.
Article 135 [Dismissal, Caretaker]
(1) The Ministers shall continue in office unless they are dismissed, or given a vote of no confidence by the Assembly as a result of their interpellation, or a motion for a vote of no confidence against them.
(2) The resignation of the Council of Ministers or that of each of them shall be submitted to the President, and the Council of Ministers shall continue to function until such time as the newgovernment is appointed.
(3) The President can appoint a caretaker for maximum period of three months for the ministries having no Minister.
Article 136 [Vote of Confidence]
The President can dismiss the Ministers and in such a case he must obtain a vote of confidence for the new Minister(s) from the Assembly. In case half of the members of the Council of Ministers are changed after the government has received its vote of confidence from the Assembly, the government must seek a fresh vote of confidence from the Assembly.
Article 137 [Responsibility]
Each of the Ministers is responsible for his duties to the President and the Assembly, but in matters approved by the Council of Ministers as a whole, he is also responsible for the actions of the others.
Article 138 [Implementation of Laws, Ministerial Commissions]
(1) In addition to instances in which the Council of Ministers or a single Minister is authorized to frame procedures for the implementation of laws, the Council of Ministers has the right to lay down rules, regulations, and procedures for performing its administrative duties, ensuring the implementation of laws, and setting up administrative bodies. Each of the Ministers also has the right to frame regulations and issue orders in matters within his jurisdiction and in conformity with the decisions of the Council of Ministers. However, the control of all such regulations must not violate the letter or the spirit of the law.
(2) The government can entrust any portion of its task to commissions composed of some Ministers. The decisions of such commissions within the rules will be binding after the endorsement of the President.
(3) The ratifications and the regulations of the Government and the decisions of the commissions mentioned under this article shall also be brought to the notice of the Speaker of the Islamic Consultative Assembly while being communicated for implementation so that in the event he finds them contrary to law, he may send the same stating the reason for reconsideration by the Council of Ministers.
Article 139 [Property Claims]
The settlement of claims relating to public and state property or the referral thereof to arbitration is in every case dependent on the approval of the Council of Ministers, and the Assembly must be informed of these matters. In cases where one party to the dispute is a foreigner, as well as in important cases that are purely domestic, the approval of the Assembly must also be obtained. Law will specify the important cases intended here.
Article 140 [No Immunity]
Allegations of common crimes against the President, his deputies, and the Ministers will be investigated in common courts of justice with the knowledge of the Islamic Consultative Assembly.
Article 141 [Incompatibility]
(1) The President the deputies to the President Ministers and Government employees cannot hold more than one Government position, and it is forbidden for them to hold any kind of additional post in institutions of which all or a part of the capital belongs to the government or public institutions, to be a member of the Islamic Consultative Assembly, to practice the profession of attorney or legal adviser, or to hold the post of president managing director, or membership of the board ofdirectors of any kind of private company, with the exception of cooperative companies affiliated to the government departments and institutions.
(2) Teaching positions in universities and research institutions are exempted from this rule.
Article 142 [Asset Control]
The assets of the Leader, the President, the deputies to the President, and Ministers, as well as those of their spouses and offspring, are to be examined before and after their term of office by the head of the judicial power, in order to ensure they have not increased in a fashion contrary to law.
Section 3 The Army and the Islamic Revolution Guards Corps
Article 143 [Army Functions]
The Army of the Islamic Republic of Iran is responsible for guarding the independence and territorial integrity of the country, as well as the order of the Islamic Republic.
Article 144 [Islamic Army]
The Army of the Islamic Republic of Iran must be an Islamic Army, i.e., committed to Islamic ideology and the people, and must recruit into its service individuals who have faith in the objectives of the Islamic Revolution and are devoted to the cause of realizing its goals.
Article 145 [No Foreigners]
No foreigner will be accepted into the Army or security forces of the country.
Article 146 [No Foreign Military Base]
The establishment of any kind of foreign military base in Iran, even for peaceful purposes, is forbidden.
Article 147 [Peace Functions]
In time of peace, the government must utilize the personnel and technical equipment of the Army in relief operations, and for educational and productive ends, and the Construction Jihad while fully observing the criteria of Islamic justice and ensuring that such utilization does not harm the combat-readiness of the Army.
Article 148 [No Personal Use]
All forms of personal use of military vehicles, equipment, and other means, as well as taking advantage of Army and chauffeurs or bidden.
Article 149 [Promotions]
Promotions in military rank and their withdrawal take place in accordance with the law.
Article 150 [Islamic Revolution Guards Corps]
The Islamic Revolution Guards Corps, organized in the early days of the triumph of the Revolution, is to be maintained so that it may continue in its role of guarding the Revolution and its achievements. The scope of the duties of this Corps, and its areas of responsibility, in relation to the duties and areas of responsibility of the other Armed Forces, are to be determined by law with emphasis on brotherly cooperation and harmony among them.
Article 151 [Military Training]
In accordance with the noble Koranic verse: "Prepare against them whatever force you are able to muster, and horses ready for battle, striking fear into God's enemy and your enemy, andothers beyond them unknown to you but known to God..." [8:60], the government is obliged to provide a program of military training, with all requisite facilities, for all its citizens, in accordance with the Islamic criteria, in such a way that all citizens will always be able to engage in the armed defence of the Islamic Republic of Iran. The possession of arms, however, requires the granting of permission by the competent authorities.
Chapter X Foreign Policy
Article 152 [Principles]
The foreign policy of the Islamic Republic of Iran is based upon the rejection of all forms of domination, both the exertion of it and submission to it, the preservation of the independence of the country in all respects and its territorial integrity, the defence of the rights of all Muslims, nonalignment with respect to the hegemonist superpowers, and the maintenance of mutually peaceful relations with all non-belligerent States.
Article 153 [No Foreign Control]
Any form of agreement resulting in foreign control over the natural resources, economy, army, or culture of the country, as well as other aspects of the national life, is forbidden.
Article 154 [Independence, Support of Just Struggles]
The Islamic Republic of Iran has as its ideal human felicity throughout human society, and considers the attainment of independence, freedom, and rule of justice and truth to be the right of all people of the world. Accordingly, while scrupulously refraining from all forms of interference in the internal affairs of other nations, it supports the just struggles of the freedom fighters against the oppressors in every corner of the globe.
Article 155 [Asylum]
The government of the Islamic Republic of Iran may grant political asylum to those who seek it unless they are regarded as traitors and saboteurs according to the laws of Iran.
Chapter XI The Judiciary
Article 156 [Status, Functions]
The judiciary is an independent power, the protector of the rights of the individual and society, responsible for the implementation of justice, and entrusted with the following duties:
1. investigating and passing judgement on grievances, violations of rights, and complaints; the resolution of litigation; the settling of disputes; and the taking of all necessary decisions and measures in probate matters as the law may determine;
2. restoring public rights and promoting justice and legitimate freedoms;
3. supervising the proper enforcement of laws;
4. uncovering crimes; prosecuting, punishing, and chastising criminals; and enacting the penalties and provisions of the Islamic penal code; and
5. taking suitable measures to prevent the occurrence of crime and to reform criminals.
Article 157 [Head of Judiciary]
In order to fulfil the responsibilities of the judiciary power in all the matters concerning judiciary, administrative and executive areas, the Leader shall appoint a just honorable man well versed in judiciary affairs and possessing prudence and administrative abilities as the head of the judiciary power for a period of fiveyears who shall be the highest judicial authority.
Article 158 [Functions of the Head of Judiciary]
The Head of Judiciary is responsible for the following:
1. Establishment of structure necessary for the justice commensurate with mentioned under Article 156.
2. Drafting judiciary bills appropriate for the Islamic Republic.
3. Employment of just and worthy judges, their dismissal, appointment, transfer, assignment to particular duties, promotions, and carrying out similar administrative duties, in accordance with the law.
Article 159 [Courts]
The courts of justice541 are the official bodies to which all grievances and complaints are to be referred. The formation of courts and their jurisdiction is to be determined by law.
Article 160 [Minister of Justice]
(1) The Minister of Justice owes responsibility in all matters concerning the relationship between the judiciary on the one hand and the executive and legislative branches on the other hand. He will be elected from among the individuals proposed to the President by the head of the judiciary branch.
(2) The head of the judiciary may delegate full authority to the Minister of Justice in financial and administrative areas and for employment of personnel other than judges in which case the Minister of Justice shall have the same authority and responsibility as those possessed by the other Ministers in their capacity as the highest ranking government executives.
Article 161 [Supreme Court]
The Supreme Court5413 is to be formed for the purpose of supervising the correct implementation of the laws by the courts, ensuring uniformity of judicial procedure, and fulfilling any other responsibilities assigned to it by law, on the basis of regulations to be established by the head of the judicial branch.
Article 162 [Chief of the Supreme Court, Prosecutor-General]
The Chief of the Supreme Court and the Prosecutor-General must both be just honorable men well versed in judicial matters. They will be nominated by the head of the judiciary branch for a period of five years, in consultation with the judges of the Supreme Court.
Article 163 [Qualifications]
The conditions and qualifications to be fulfilled by a judge will be determined by law, in accordance with religious criteria.
Article 164 [Independence]
A judge cannot be removed5421, whether temporarily or permanently, from the post he occupies except by trial and proof of his guilt, or in consequence of a violation entailing his dismissal. A judge cannot be transferred or redesignated without his consent, except in cases when the interest of society necessitates it, that too, with the decision of the head of the judiciary branch after consultation with the chief of the Supreme Court and the Prosecutor General. The periodic transfer and rotation of judges will be in accordance with general regulations to be laid down by law.
Article 165 [Public Trials]
Trials are to be held openly and members of the public may attend without any restriction unless the court determines that an open trial would be detrimental to public morality or discipline, or if in case of private disputes, both the parties request not to hold open hearing.
Article 166 [Reasoned Verdicts]
The verdicts of courts must be well reasoned out and documented with reference to the articles and principles of the law in accordance with which they are delivered.
Article 167 [Rule of Law for Judiciary]
The judge is bound to endeavor to judge each case on the basis of the codified law. In case of the absence of any such law, he has to deliver his judgement on the basis of authoritative Islamic sources and authentic fatawa. He, on the pretext of the silence of or deficiency of law in the matter, or its brevity or contradictory nature, cannot refrain from admitting and examining cases and delivering his judgement.
Article 168 [Political and Press Offences]
Political and press offenses will be tried openly and in the presence of a jury, in courts of justice. The manner of the selection of the jury, its powers, and the definition of political offenses, will be determined by law in accordance with the Islamic criteria.
Article 169 [Nulla Poena Sine Lege]
No act or omission may be regarded as a crime with retrospective effect on the basis of a law framed subsequently.
Article 170 [Control of Regulations]
Judges of courts are obliged to refrain from executing statutes and regulations of the government that are in conflict with the laws or the norms of Islam, or lie outside the competence of the executive power. Everyone has the right to demand the annulment of any such regulation from the Court of Administrative Justice.
Article 171 [Liability of Judges]
Whenever an individual suffers moral or material loss as the result of a default or error of the judge with respect to the subject matter of a case or the verdict delivered, or the application of a rule in a particular case, the defaulting judge must stand surety for the reparation of that loss in accordance with the Islamic criteria, if it be a case of default. Otherwise, losses will be compensated for by the State. In all such cases, the repute and good standing of the accused will be restored.
Article 172 [Military Courts]
Military courts will be established by law to investigate crimes committed in connection with military or security duties by members of the Army, the Gendarmerie, the police, and the Islamic Revolution Guards Corps. They will be tried in public courts, however, for common crimes or crimes committed while serving the department of justice in executive capacity. The office of military prosecutor and the military courts form part of the judiciary and are subject to the same principles that regulate the judiciary.
Article 173 [Court of Administrative Justice]
In order to investigate the complaints, grievances, and objections of the people with respect to government officials, organs, and statutes, a court will be established to be known as the Court of Administrative Justice under the supervision of the head of the judiciary branch. The jurisdiction, powers, and mode of operation of this court will be laid down by law.
Article 174 [National General Inspectorate]
In accordance with the right of the judiciary to supervise the proper conducting of affairs and the correct implementation of laws by the administrative organs of the government, anorganization will be constituted under the supervision of the head of the judiciary branch to be known as the National General Inspectorate. The powers and duties of this organization will be determined by law.
Chapter XII Radio and Television
Article 175 [Freedom of Expression, Government Control]
(1) The freedom of expression and dissemination of thoughts in the Radio and Television of the Islamic Republic of Iran must be guaranteed in keeping with the Islamic criteria and the best interests of the country.
(2) The appointment and dismissal of the head of the Radio and Television of the Islamic Republic of Iran rests with the Leader. A council consisting of two representatives each of the President, the head of the judiciary branch, and the Islamic Consultative Assembly shall supervise the functioning of this organization.
(3) The policies and the manner of managing the organization and its supervision will be determined by law.
Chapter XIII Supreme Council for National Security
Article 176 [Supreme Council for National Security]
(1) In order to safeguarding the national interests and preserving the Islamic Revolution, the territorial integrity, and the national sovereignty, a Supreme Council for National SecurityArmed_Forces presided over by the President shall be constituted to fulfil the following responsibilities:
1. Determining the defence and national security policies within the framework of general policies determined by the Leader;
2. coordination of activities in the areas relating to politics, intelligence, social, cultural and economic fields in regard to general defence and security policies; and
3. exploitation of materialistic and intellectual resources of the country for facing the internal and external threats.
(2) The Council shall consist of:
- the heads of three branches of the government,
- the chief of the Supreme Command Council of the Armed Forces,
- the officer in charge of the planning and budget affairs,
- two representatives nominated by the Leader,
- Ministers of foreign affairs, interior, and information,
- a Minister related with the subject, and
- the highest ranking officials from the Armed Forces and the Islamic Revolution's Guards Corps.
(3) Commensurate with its duties, the Supreme Council for National Security shall form subcouncils such as Defence Subcouncil and National Security Subcouncil. Each subcouncil will be presided over by the President or a member of the Supreme Council for National Security appointed by the President.
(4) The scope of authority and responsibility of the subcouncils will be determined by law and their organizational structure will be approved by the Supreme Council for National Defence.
(5) The decisions of the Supreme Council for National Security shall be effective after the confirmation by the Leader.
Chapter XIV The Revision of the Constitution
Article 177 [Revision by Council and Referendum]
(1) The revision of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, whenever needed by the circumstances, will be done in the following manner:
The Leader issues an edict to the President after consultation with the Nation's Exigency Council stipulating the amendmentsor additions to be made by the Council for Revision of the Constitution which consists of:
1. Members of the Guardian Council;
2. heads of the three branches of the government;
3. permanent members of the Nation's Exigency Council;
4. five members from among the Assembly of Experts;
5. ten representatives selected by the Leader;
6. three representatives from the Council of Ministers;
7. three representatives from the judiciary branch;
8. ten representatives from among the members of the Islamic Consultative Assembly; and
9. three representatives from among the university professors.
(2) The method of working, manner of selection and the terms and conditions of the Council shall be determined by law.
(3) The decisions of the Council, after the confirmation and signatures of the Leader, shall be valid if approved by an absolute majority vote in a national referendum.
(4) The provisions of Article 59 shall not apply to the referendum for the "Revision of the Constitution."
(5) The contents of the articles of the Constitution related to the Islamic character of the political system; the basis of all the rules and regulations according to Islamic criteria; the religious footing; the objectives of the Islamic Republic of Iran; the democratic character of the government; the holy principle; the Imamate of Ummah; and the administration of the affairs of the country based on national referenda, official religion of Iran and the religious school are unalterable.
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