Chad at a glance        0  740 reads


Area; 1,284,634 sq. km. (496,000 sq. mi.); about twice the size of Texas. Cities; Capital--N'Djamena (pop. 1 million est.). Other major cities--Moundou, Abeche, Sarh, Bongor, Faya. Terrain; Desert, mountainous north; large arid central plain; fertile lowlands in southern regions. Climate; Northern desert--very dry throughout the year; central plain--hot and dry, with intense rainy season mid-June to mid-September; southern lowlands--warm and more humid with intense rainy seasons from late May to early October.


Nationality; Noun and adjective--Chadian(s). Population (2009 census); 11,175,915. Annual population growth rate (2009 census); 3.5%. Density; 8.7 per sq. km. (3.36 per sq. mi.). Ethnic groups; 200 distinct groups. In the north and center, Gorane (sub-groups are Toubou, Daza, Kreda), Zaghawa, Kanembou, Ouaddai, Arabs, Baguirmi, Hadjerai, Fulbe, Kotoko, Hausa, Boulala, and Maba, most of whom are Muslim. In the south, Sara (including major subgroups--Ngambaye, Mbaye, Goulaye), Moudang, Moussei, and Massa, most of whom are Christian or animist. About 1,000 French citizens live in Chad. Religions; Muslim 55%, Christian 35%, animist 10%. Languages; French and Arabic (official); Sara (in the south), more than 120 indigenous Chadian languages and dialects. Education; Years compulsory--6. Attendance--primary school 82.71% (2008); secondary school 19.02% (2007); higher education n/a. Literacy (age 15 and over can read and write French or Arabic, 2003 est.)--48%. Health; Life expectancy (2009 est.)--48.7 years. Infant mortality rate (2008 est.)--130 deaths/1,000 live births. Work force (2006 est.)--3.747 million. Agriculture--more than 80%; largely subsistence agriculture and stock raising.


Type; Republic. Independence; August 11, 1960 (from France). Branches; Executive--president (head of state), prime minister, Council of State. Legislative--National Assembly (unicameral). Judicial--Supreme Court; Court of Appeals; criminal courts; magistrate courts. Major political parties; The Patriotic Salvation Movement (MPS) is dominant, with a coalition of 103 of the 120 parties. The other 17 are aligned in the opposition coalition called the Coalition for the Defense of the Constitution (CPDC). Suffrage; Universal over 18. Administrative subdivisions; 22 regions.


GDP, current prices (2010); $7.9 billion. GDP per capita income (2008); $780. Population living below poverty line (2008); 43.4%. Natural resources; Petroleum, natron (sodium carbonate), kaolin, gold, bauxite, tin, tungsten, titanium, iron ore. Agriculture (2008, 13.6% of GDP); Products--sugar, cotton, gum arabic, livestock, fish, peanuts, millet, sorghum, rice, sweet potatoes, cassava, dates, manioc. Arable land (2007)--38%. Industry (2008, 48.8% of GDP); Types--meatpacking, beer brewing, soap, cigarettes, construction materials, natron mining, soft-drink bottling. Services (2008); 37.6% of GDP. Trade; Exports--U.S. $2.71 billion (f.o.b., 2009); oil, cotton, livestock, gum arabic. Major markets--United States, Nigeria, France, Cameroon, Portugal, Germany, Thailand, Costa Rica, South Africa. Imports--U.S. $2.54 billion (f.o.b., 2009); petroleum products, machinery and transportation equipment, foodstuffs, industrial goods, textiles. Major suppliers (2004)--U.S., France, Cameroon, Nigeria. Central government budget (2010); Revenues--U.S. $2.06 billion. Expenditures--U.S. $2.4 billion. Defense (2002); $31 million. National holiday; Independence Day, August 11. Fiscal year; Calendar year. U.S. aid received to date (FY 2008 and 2009); Total USAID and State humanitarian assistance to Chad--$777,425,663.



Chad, part of France's African holdings until 1960, endured three decades of civil warfare as well as invasions by Libya before a semblance of peace was finally restored in 1990. The government eventually drafted a democratic constitution, and held flawed presidential elections in 1996 and 2001. In 1998, a rebellion broke out in northern Chad, which has sporadically flared up despite several peace agreements between the government and the rebels. In 2005, new rebel groups emerged in western Sudan and made probing attacks into eastern Chad, despite signing peace agreements in December 2006 and October 2007. Power remains in the hands of an ethnic minority. In June 2005, President Idriss DEBY held a referendum successfully removing constitutional term limits and won another controversial election in 2006. Sporadic rebel campaigns continued throughout 2006 and 2007, and the capital experienced a significant rebel threat in early 2008.

National colours > Some well-known national colours > Primary colours
Dark blue, yellow, and red

SOURCES All CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 18 December 2008; Wikipedia National colours

ALTERNATIVE NAMES Chad, Republic of Chad, Republique du Tchad, Tchad



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Republic of Chad

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Republique du Tchad/Jumhuriyat Tshad

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SOURCES ; CIA World Factbook, 28 July 2005; All CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 18 December 2008;; Wkipedia; IOC country codes

ALTERNATIVE NAMES Chad, Republic of Chad, Republique du Tchad, Tchad

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